原载于《中国体育收藏》第三期 / 2014
National Winter Games of the People’s Republic of China was firstly held in 1959. It is a winter multi-sports competition. In the beginning, the National Winter Games did not like the “ National Games “ having the consecutive names. From the first to the fourth National Winter Games were later “ subsequently confirmed “. Since 1983, the fifth National Winter Games started to adopt sequentially numbered names. In the third and fourth National Games, winter sports were included. Ever since the beginning of the Fifth National Games, winter sports were separated from the National Games. In 1993, certain parts of winter sports were introduced into the Seventh National Games. Since 2012, from the beginning of Twelfth National Winter Games, National Winter Games were to be hosted by the provincial government. Winter sports were no longer included in the National Games. The competitions results of National Winter Games should be counted into the National Games.
The First National Winter Games was held in February 1959. It was then called by “1959 National Winter Games”, among which the sports on the snow were held in Jilin from 1st February to 5th February, and sports on the ice were held in Harbin from 10th February to 20th February. Back then, the newspaper said, “This Winter Games is the first big events to celebrate the tenth anniversary of the founding of People’s Republic of China, but also is a prelude to the first National Games.”
In 1965, the Second National Games did not include any winter sports items, nor any independent National Winter Games were held in that year. Therefore, the second National Winter Games have never been held.
The Third National Winter Games was not an independent sports event, but was part of the Third National Games in 1975. Competition items included speed skating, figure skating, ice hockey, alpine skiing and cross-country skiing. It used the unified logo with the Third National Games, but the game was held in the early 1976. The sports on the snow were held in Heilongjiang during 18th -23rd February, and the sports on the ice in Harbin during 16th -26th January.
The Fourth National Winter Games was part of the 1979 Fourth National Games. It included speed skating, figure skating, ice hockey, alpine skiing and cross-country skiing. The sports on the snow were held in Heilongjiang during 14th -20th February. Speed Skating was held in Urumqi of Xinjiang province during 4th-9th March. Beijing became the first city to host the winter sports. Ice hockey and figure skating were held during 8th- 17th September. And the Fourth National Games was held during 15th-30th September in Beijing.
Since the Fifth National Winter Games, the National Winter Games were officially independent from the National Games, having started to use the name of “National Winter Games of the People’s Republic of China”, mostly people call it “National Winter Games” for short. Hence, the full name of this Games should be “The fifth National Winter Games of People’s Republic of China”. In 1983, the Fifth National Winter Games was held in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province during 12th-23rd March. The sports on the snow were conducted in Heilongjiang Yabuli Ski Field during 20th -28th February, furthermore, it added Short Track Speed Skating and Biathlon, altogether seven sports items.
The Sixth National Winter Games was held from March 8th to March 16th in Changchun, Jilin Province. It added ski jumping, altogether eight sports items. This time, it appeared the first mascot in the history of National Winter Games: sika deer.
The Seventh National Winter Games was held from February 2sed to February 9th in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province. Delegation from Zhongshan City, Guangdong Province is the first team from Southern province joining the National Winter Games. Comparing with the last time, it added a performance item: freestyle skiing. The Seventh National Games was held in Beijing in 1993, which meant that from this time, the National Winter Games was be held two years ahead of the National Games. It started from the Seventh National Games, some parts of the National Winter Games were included in the National Games again. The short track speed skating and speed skating appeared in the Seventh National Games.
The Eighth National Winter Games was held in Jilin from January15th to 24th in 1995. It added freestyle skiing, altogether nine sports items. The Eighth National Games in 1997 set up short track speed skating, speed skating and figure skating.
The Ninth National Winter Games was held in Jilin in January 1999. The competition items were the same to the last time. The sports on the ice were held in Changchun City. The sports on the snow were held in Jilin Dahu ski Field. The Ninth National Games in 2001 set up short track speed skating, speed skating and figure skating.
The Tenth National Winter Games was held in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province in January 2003. It added a new item Curling, altogether ten sports, separately held in Harbin and Yabuli. The Tenth National Games in 2005 set up short track speed skating, speed skating and figure skating.
The Eleventh National Winter Games was held from January 18th to January 28th in Qiqihar Heilongjiang Province in the year of 2003. It was five years from the last National Winter Games. Since then, the National Winter Games was to be held in the previous year of the National Games. The competition included 11 discipines and 90 small items, among which 5 discipines and 52 events were conducted on the ice and 6 discipines and 38 events were conducted on the snow. The ice part was held in Qiqihar and the snow part was held in Yabuli Ski Field. The Eleventh National Games in 2009 set up short track speed skating, speed skating, figure skating and freestyle skiing.
The Twelfth National Winter Games was held from January 3rd to January 13rd in Jilin Province. Sports on snow were conducted in Jilin City and ice items in Changchun City. This was the first time the large comprehensive winter tournament hosted by the provincial government and competition results of some sports in National Winter Games are included in the second year’s National Games, the National Games should no longer set up Winter Games. The competition included 5 sports, 12 discipines and 105 small items. There are 43 delegations and 1067 athletes participated the game. The top 8 scores of short track speed skating and other 4 discipines and 16 events are counted the Twelfth National Games.
The Thirteenth National Winter Games will be held in 2016 in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, which will be the largest multi-sports events hosted by Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.