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全国冬季运动会简介

发布时间:2015-06-27 21:25    查看次数:1655    分类:体育史料

原载于《中国体育收藏》第三期 / 2014

文/图  郭磊


中华人民共和国全国冬季运动会从1959年开始举办,是一项冬季运动项目综合性运动会。起初,全国冬季运动会没有像“全国运动会”一样连续编号,第一届至第四届全国冬季运动会都是后来“追认”的,从1983年第五届全国冬季运动会开始顺序编号。冬季运动项目是第三届和第四届全运会的比赛项目。1983年第五届全运会开始,冬季运动会从全国运动会中分离出去单独举办。从1993年第七届全国运动会,冬季体育的部分项目又重新列入全运会比赛项目。从2012年第十二届全国冬季运动会开始,全国冬季运动会由省级人民政府承办,全国运动会不再设立冬季比赛项目,全国冬季运动会部分比赛项目成绩计入全运会。
第一届全国冬季运动会1959年2月举办,名称为“1959年全国冬季运动会”,其中雪上项目2月1日-5日在吉林举办,冰上项目2月10日-20日在哈尔滨举办。有报纸称“这届冬季运动会是庆祝我国建国十周年的第一次大活动,也是第一届全国运动会的前奏。”
1965年第二届全国运动会上没有包括冬季项目,当年也没有单独举办全国性冬季运动会,因此第二届全国冬季运动会并没有举办。
第三届全国冬季运动会并不是一个独立的赛事,是1975年第三届全运会的组成部分,比赛项目有速度滑冰、花样滑冰、冰球、高山滑雪和越野滑雪,与第三届全国运动会使用统一的标识,但比赛是在1976年初举办的,其中雪上项目2月18日-23日在黑龙江尚志县举办,冰上项目1月16日-26日在哈尔滨举办。
第四届全国冬季运动会是1979年第四届全国运动会的组成部分,比赛项目有速度滑冰、花样滑冰、冰球、高山滑雪和越野滑雪。其中雪上项目2月14日-20日在黑龙江尚志市举行,速度滑冰于3月4日-9日在新疆乌鲁木齐举行,北京第一次成为冬季运动项目的举办城市,冰球、花样滑冰于9月8日-17日在北京举行,此时的北京同时举办着全国运动会的其他项目的比赛。
从第五届全国冬季运动会开始,全国冬季运动会正式从全运会中独立出来,使用“中华人民共和国冬季运动会”的名称,不少人将其简称为“全国冬季运动会”或者“全冬会”。因此第五届全国冬季运动会的全名应该是“中华人民共和国第五届冬季运动会”。第五届全国冬季运动会于1983年3月12日-23日在黑龙江省哈尔滨举办,其中雪上项目于2月20日-28日在黑龙江省亚布力滑雪场举行。比赛项目增加了短道速滑和冬季两项,共七项。
第六届全国冬季运动会于1987年3月8日-16日由吉林省长春市举办。比赛项目增加了跳台滑雪,共八项。本届全冬会出现了全国冬季运动会历史上的第一个吉祥物:梅花鹿。
第七届全国冬季运动会于1991年2月2日-9日在黑龙江省哈尔滨举办。广东省中山市代表团是内地第一支参加全冬会的南方代表队。比赛项目与上届相同,增加了一个表演项目:自由式滑雪。而第七届全国运动会是1993年在北京举办的,也就是说,从本届开始,全国冬季运动会的举办时间提前到全国运动会的前二年举办。为促进冬季体育的发展,实施“北冰南展”工程,从第七届全国运动会开始,冬季体育的部分项目又重新列入全运会比赛项目。七运会设立了短道速滑和速度滑冰项目。
第八届全国冬季运动会于1995年1月15日至1月24日在吉林省吉林市举办。比赛项目增加了自由式滑雪,共九项。1997年第八届全国运动会中设立了短道速滑、速度滑冰和花样滑冰项目。
第九届全国冬季运动会于1999年1月在吉林省长春市举行,比赛项目与上届相同。本届冬运会的冰上项目在长春市举行,雪上项目在吉林市北大壶滑雪场举行。2001年第九届全国运动会中设立了短道速滑、速度滑冰和花样滑冰项目。
第十届冬季运动会于2003年1月在黑龙江省哈尔滨市举办。比赛项目增加了冰壶,共十项。比赛分哈尔滨、亚布力2个赛区。2005年第十届全国运动会中设立了短道速滑、速度滑冰和花样滑冰项目。
第十一届全国冬季运动会于2008年1月18日至28日在黑龙江省齐齐哈尔市举办。与上一届全冬会举办时间相隔5年,从本届全冬会开始,全国冬季运动会的举办时间又提前到全运会的前一年举办。比赛设11个分项90个小项,其中冰上设5个分项52个小项,雪上设6个分项38个小项。本届冬运会的冰上项目在齐齐哈尔市举行,雪上项目在尚志市亚布力滑雪场举行。2009年第十一届全国运动会中设立了短道速滑、速度滑冰、花样滑冰和自由式滑雪项目。
第十二届全国冬季运动会于2012年1月3日-13日在吉林省举办,其中雪上项目在吉林市,冰上项目在长春市。本届冬运会是首次由省级政府承办的大型综合性冬季赛会,并开始将全国冬季运动会部分项目的比赛成绩计入第二年的全国运动会,第二年的全运会中不再设立冬季项目比赛。比赛设5个大项12个分项105个小项,43个代表团的1067名运动员参加了比赛。短道速滑等4个分项16个小项前8名成绩计入第十二届夏季全运会。
第十三届全国冬季运动会将于2016年在新疆维吾尔自治区举办,这将是新疆维吾尔自治区承办的最大规模的全国综合性运动会。


National Winter Games of the People’s Republic of China was firstly held in 1959. It is a winter multi-sports competition. In the beginning, the National Winter Games did not like the “ National Games “ having the consecutive names. From the first to the fourth National Winter Games were later “ subsequently confirmed “. Since 1983, the fifth National Winter Games started to adopt sequentially numbered names. In the third and fourth National Games, winter sports were included. Ever since the beginning of the Fifth National Games, winter sports were separated from the National Games. In 1993, certain parts of winter sports were introduced into the Seventh National Games. Since 2012, from the beginning of Twelfth National Winter Games, National Winter Games were to be hosted by the provincial government. Winter sports were no longer included in the National Games. The competitions results of National Winter Games should be counted into the National Games.
The First National Winter Games was held in February 1959. It was then called by “1959 National Winter Games”, among which the sports on the snow were held in Jilin from 1st February to 5th February, and sports on the ice were held in Harbin from 10th February to 20th February. Back then, the newspaper said, “This Winter Games is the first big events to celebrate the tenth anniversary of the founding of People’s Republic of China, but also is a prelude to the first National Games.”
In 1965, the Second National Games did not include any winter sports items, nor any independent National Winter Games were held in that year. Therefore, the second National Winter Games have never been held.
The Third National Winter Games was not an independent sports event, but was part of the Third National Games in 1975. Competition items included speed skating, figure skating, ice hockey, alpine skiing and cross-country skiing. It used the unified logo with the Third National Games, but the game was held in the early 1976. The sports on the snow were held in Heilongjiang during 18th -23rd February, and the sports on the ice in Harbin during 16th -26th January.  
The Fourth National Winter Games was part of the 1979 Fourth National Games. It included speed skating, figure skating, ice hockey, alpine skiing and cross-country skiing. The sports on the snow were held in Heilongjiang during 14th -20th February. Speed Skating was held in Urumqi of Xinjiang province during 4th-9th March. Beijing became the first city to host the winter sports. Ice hockey and figure skating were held during 8th- 17th September. And the Fourth National Games was held during 15th-30th September  in Beijing.
Since the Fifth National Winter Games, the National Winter Games were officially independent from the National Games, having started to use the name of “National Winter Games of the People’s Republic of China”, mostly people call it “National Winter Games” for short. Hence, the full name of this Games should be “The fifth National Winter Games of People’s Republic of China”.  In 1983, the Fifth National Winter Games was held in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province during 12th-23rd March. The sports on the snow were conducted in Heilongjiang Yabuli Ski Field during 20th -28th February, furthermore, it added Short Track Speed Skating and Biathlon, altogether seven sports items.
The Sixth National Winter Games was held from March 8th to March 16th in Changchun, Jilin Province. It added ski jumping, altogether eight sports items. This time, it appeared the first mascot in the history of National Winter Games: sika deer.
The Seventh National Winter Games was held from February 2sed to February 9th in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province. Delegation from Zhongshan City, Guangdong Province is the first team from Southern province joining the National Winter Games. Comparing with the last time, it added a performance item: freestyle skiing. The Seventh National Games was held in Beijing in 1993, which meant that from this time, the National Winter Games was be held two years ahead of the National Games. It started from the Seventh National Games, some parts of the National Winter Games were included in the National Games again. The short track speed skating and speed skating appeared in the Seventh National Games.
The Eighth National Winter Games was held in Jilin from January15th to 24th in 1995. It added freestyle skiing, altogether nine sports items. The Eighth National Games in 1997 set up short track speed skating, speed skating and figure skating.
The Ninth National Winter Games was held in Jilin in January 1999. The competition items were the same to the last time. The sports on the ice were held in Changchun City. The sports on the snow were held in Jilin Dahu ski Field. The Ninth National Games in 2001 set up short track speed skating, speed skating and figure skating.
The Tenth National Winter Games was held in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province in January 2003. It added a new item Curling, altogether ten sports, separately held in Harbin and Yabuli. The Tenth National Games in 2005 set up short track speed skating, speed skating and figure skating.
The Eleventh National Winter Games was held from January 18th to January 28th in Qiqihar Heilongjiang Province in the year of 2003. It was five years from the last National Winter Games. Since then, the National Winter Games was to be held in the previous year of the National Games. The competition included 11 discipines and 90 small items, among which 5 discipines and 52 events were conducted on the ice and 6 discipines and 38 events were conducted on the snow. The ice part was held in Qiqihar and the snow part was held in Yabuli Ski Field. The Eleventh National Games in 2009 set up short track speed skating, speed skating, figure skating and freestyle skiing.
The Twelfth National Winter Games was held from January 3rd to January 13rd in Jilin Province. Sports on snow were conducted in Jilin City and ice items in Changchun City. This was the first time the large comprehensive winter tournament hosted by the provincial government and competition results of some sports in National Winter Games are included in the second year’s National Games, the National Games should no longer set up Winter Games. The competition included 5 sports, 12 discipines and 105 small items. There are 43 delegations and 1067 athletes participated the game. The top 8 scores of short track speed skating and other 4 discipines and 16 events are counted the Twelfth National Games.
The Thirteenth National Winter Games will be held in 2016 in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, which will be the largest multi-sports events hosted by Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.